Hepatitis Types ,symptoms & Treatment

What is Hepatitis?,Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The different types of hepatitis are caused by different things, but they all produce inflammation of the liver Hepatitis A ,Hepatitis A is the most common of the seven known types of viral h

                       What is Hepatitis ?

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The different types of hepatitis are caused by different things, but they all produce inflammation of the liver. Viral hepatitis refers to several common contagious diseases caused by viruses that attack the liver. The most important types of viral hepatitis are hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Newly discovered forms of viral hepatitis also include hepatitis D, E, and G. Non-viral forms of hepatitis can be caused by toxic agents (drugs or chemicals), alcohol, or autoimmune processes. Another form of hepatitis is toxic hepatitis. Toxic hepatitis can be caused by viruses or by liver damage due to toxic substances. Toxic hepatitis is a deterioration of the liver cells caused by chemicals, alcohol, drugs, and industrial compounds. Alcohol abuse is a common cause of toxic liver damage.

Hepatitis C is a viral infection of the liver. Some patients have a mild, acute infection that disappears without treatment. When the infection continues for six or more months, it is known as chronic hepatitis C, which can be marked by fatigue and liver function impairment. Those with chronic hepatitis C have an increased risk of later developing cirrhosis or liver cancer.

               Hepatitis A :

Hepatitis A is the most common of the seven known types of viral hepatitis. Infection with the hepatitis A virus leads to inflammation of the liver, but complications are rarely serious.

           How hepatitis A is spread :

 

The hepatitis A virus (HAV) is found in the faeces of someone infected with the virus. It only takes a tiny amount of faeces getting inside another person’s mouth to cause hepatitis A infection. Personal hygiene, such as careful hand washing, can minimise the risk of the virus being passed on.
HAV is a common infection in many parts of the world where sanitation and sewage infrastructure is poor. Often people become infected with HAV by eating or drinking contaminated food or water.
Hepatitis A is also classed as a sexually transmitted disease (STD) because it can be passed on sexually, particularly during activities such as anilingus (rimming). The washing of genital and anal areas before sex, and the use of condoms or dental dams can help to prevent this risk.
Hepatitis A can affect all age groups. Once a person is exposed to the virus it takes between 2 and 6 weeks to produce symptoms.
 

 

                   Signs and symptoms of hepatitis A:

It is possible to experience mild or no symptoms whatsoever, but even if this is the case the person’s faeces will still be infectious to others. Many people who become infected with HAV will have symptoms that include:

  • A short, mild, flu-like illness;

  • nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea;

  • loss of appetite;

  • weight loss;

  • jaundice (yellow skin and whites of eyes, darker yellow urine and pale faeces);

  • itchy skin;

  • abdominal pain.

 

 

The infection usually clears in up to 2 months, but may occasionally recur or persist longer in some people. Once a person has been infected and their body has fought off the virus they are permanently immune. Occasionally symptoms may be severe and require monitoring in hospital.

There are rarely any complications with hepatitis A infection. Permanent damage to the liver is very unlikely, but in extremely rare cases the infection can be fatal, particularly in older people.

                Treatment for hepatitis A :

There is no specific treatment for HAV and most people fight off the virus naturally, returning to full health within a couple of months. The doctor will advise avoiding alcohol and fatty foods as these can be hard for the liver to process and may exacerbate the inflammation.

Patients should get plenty of rest and eat a nutritious diet. They should also ensure they do not spread HAV by washing their hands after using the toilet and before preparing food. Patients with more severe symptoms may be monitored in hospital for a short period.

              Hepatitis B  :

Hepatitis B is similar to hepatitis A in its symptoms, but is more likely to cause chronic long-term illness and permanent damage to the liver if not treated.

How hepatitis B is spread

 

The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is very common worldwide, with more than 350 million people infected. Those with long term HBV are at high risk of developing liver cirrhosis or liver cancer.

 

Hepatitis B is most frequently passed on through the exchange of bodily fluids with an infected person. HBV is estimated to be 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV.1

 

         HBV can be spread in the following ways :

  • By unprotected (without a condom) penetrative sex (when the penis enters the anus, vagina or mouth) with someone who is infectious. Also by sex that draws blood with someone who is infected.
  • By sharing contaminated needles or other drug-injecting equipment.
  • By using non-sterilised equipment for tattooing, acupuncture or body piercing.
  • From an infected mother to her baby, most commonly during delivery. Immunisation of the baby at birth prevents the transmission of hepatitis B.
  • Through a blood transfusion in a country where blood is not screened for blood-borne viruses such as HBV.
     

Hepatitis B cannot be spread through sneezing, coughing, hugging or coming in contact with the faeces of someone who is infected.

             Signs and symptoms of hepatitis B :

 

Many people who become infected with HBV experience mild symptoms or no symptoms at all, but they may still carry the infectious virus and pass it on to others. When symptoms do appear they are similar to those of hepatitis A and may include:

  • A short, mild, flu-like illness;

  • nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea;

  • loss of appetite;

  • weight loss;

  • jaundice (yellow skin and whites of eyes, darker yellow urine and pale faeces);

  • itchy skin.

If symptoms become severe then a person with hepatitis B may be admitted to hospital.

Most adults infected with the hepatitis B virus fully recover and develop life-long immunity. Between 2% and 10% of individuals infected as adults will become chronic carriers, which means they will be infectious to others and can develop chronic liver damage. Infected children, especially newborn babies, are much more likely to become chronic carriers.

 

If a person lives with hepatitis B infection for a number of years then they may develop the following complications:

 

  • chronic hepatitis

  • liver cirrhosis

  • liver cancer

                          Treatment for hepatitis B :

 

 

In most countries a patient with a positive test result will be referred to a specialist who will carry out further tests to determine the degree to which hepatitis B may be affecting the liver, and what may be the best treatment options. In these tests a small sample of liver tissue may need to be taken (a liver biopsy).
In the majority of patients with active HBV, symptoms will not be severe and treatment will not be required. The patient will be monitored and after a few months the patient’s immune system should fight off the virus, giving the patient natural immunity.
In around 5% of adults, 30-50% of young children (aged 1-4), and 90% of infants, HBV infection will become chronic. The virus is more deadly to the young and those that are infected at birth have a 25% chance of developing a life-threatening liver-related illness.
Antiviral medication is given as treatment to those with chronic symptoms to help prevent further liver damage. These medications may be injected or given in pill form. Examples are Interferon Alpha, Lamivudine and Baraclude. Treatment usually lasts 6 months, during which time the patient will be carefully monitored.
Regardless of whether the infection is producing symptoms or not, the patient will be advised to avoid alcohol, get plenty of rest and maintain a healthy diet.

                        Hepatitis C :

Hepatitis C, like other forms of hepatitis, causes inflammation of the liver. The hepatitis C virus is transferred primarily through blood, and is more persistent than hepatitis A or B.

How hepatitis C is spread

The hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be spread in the following ways:

  • By sharing drug-injecting equipment (needles, heating spoons, etc). This is the primary transmission route for HCV outside sub-Saharan Africa.

  • By using non-sterilised equipment for tattooing, acupuncture or body piercing. This can be a problem in countries where tattooing or scarification is a traditional ritual practice.

  • Through exposure to blood during unprotected sex with an infected person. Blood may be present because of genital sores, cuts or menstruation. Sexual transmission is an uncommon way of becoming infected with hepatitis C.

  • Rarely, from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth. The risk may be greater if the mother is also infected with HIV.

  • Through blood transfusion. In many developing countries blood is not screened (tested) for the hepatitis C virus. All blood for transfusion in the UK and USA is tested.

  • By sharing equipment used to snort cocaine. Usually this is a rolled banknote, which can become contaminated with blood from a person’s nose.

                    Signs and symptoms of hepatitis C :

Many people do not have symptoms when they become infected with hepatitis C. Symptoms may emerge later, taking anywhere between 15 and 150 days to develop. Occasionally a person will not develop any symptoms and their immune system will successfully clear the virus without their knowledge. An infected person without symptoms can still act as a carrier and pass the virus on to others.
 

            Symptoms may include :

  • A short, mild, flu-like illness;
  • nausea and vomiting;
  • diarrhoea;
  • loss of appetite;
  • weight loss;
  • jaundice (yellow skin and whites of eyes, darker yellow urine and pale faeces);
  • itchy skin.
     
About 20% of individuals who become infected with HCV will clear the virus from their body within 6 months, though this does not mean they are immune from future infection with HCV.
The other 80% of people will develop chronic hepatitis C infection, during which the virus may cause mild symptoms or no symptoms at all. These people will however carry the hepatitis C virus for the rest of their lives and will remain infectious to others.
If a person lives with hepatitis C infection for a number of years then they may develop the following complications

 

  • chronic hepatitis

  • liver cirrhosis

  • liver cancer

If symptoms become severe then a person with hepatitis C may be admitted to hospital for monitoring and treatment.

                      Treatment for hepatitis C :

To determine the extent to which the liver has been affected by hepatitis C, other tests may be carried out. These include liver function tests, which measure substances (specific proteins and enzymes) in the patient’s blood, showing how effectively the liver is working. A liver biopsy may also be carried out. A fine hollow needle is passed through the skin into the liver and a small sample is taken. The sample is then examined under a microscope to gauge the amount of liver damage (inflammation, scarring and cirrhosis).
Treatment combines the antiviral drugs interferon and ribavirin. Although treatment has improved in recent years, the success rates vary depending on which genotype the patient has and how long they have had hepatitis C.
 

The antiviral drugs may cause significant side effects that may be intolerable for some people. These include:

  • headaches
  • flu-like symptoms
  • nausea
  • tiredness
  • body aches
  • depression
  • skin rashes
A patient will also require regular check-ups to monitor their progress. It is important to remember that if HCV treatment is effective and the infection is cleared, this does not mean the patient has future immunity to hepatitis C.

 

               What is hepatitis D ? 

Hepatitis D (HDV) is a viral liver infection that can only be acquired if a person has active hepatitis B (HBV).

HDV

             Symptoms of Hepatitis D :

The list of signs and symptoms mentioned in various sources for Hepatitis D includes the 11 symptoms listed below:Read more at

  1. Flu-like symptoms
  2. •Fever
  3. •Fatigue
  4. •Nausea
  5. •Vomiting
  6. •Loss of appetite
  7. •Abdominal pain
  8. •Diarrhea
  9. •Jaundice
  10. •Yellow eyes
  11. Yellow skin

                Hepatitis D Treatment :

Stay Healthy During Hepatitis D Treatment

Regardless of whether you have acute or chronic hepatitis D, you should take certain steps to stay healthy and avoid hurting your liver -- both as your body is fighting the hepatitis D virus and after hepatitis D treatment has ended. Following are some things you can do to stay healthy:

  • •Getting enough calories. Many people with hepatitis D -- especially those taking medication -- get nauseous. In order to get enough calories, try eating several small meals throughout the day (instead of three large meals a day). If you feel sick in the morning, try eating some crackers or dry toast before getting out of bed. It may also help to drink lemon water or have a lemon drop.
  •  
  • •Getting plenty of rest.
  •  
  • •Drinking plenty of fluids. You should try to drink at least 10 to 16 glasses a day of water, clear juices, or other drinks that do not have caffeine in them.
  •  
  • •Avoiding medicines that can harm the liver. Talk with your healthcare provider about all of the medicines that you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, as well as vitamins and herbal remedies.
  •  
  • •Avoiding alcohol. Alcohol poisons your liver and can cause even more damage to the cells that are already fighting the hepatitis D virus. The exact amount of alcohol that will harm the liver isn't known. Therefore, it is generally recommended that people with hepatitis D avoid alcohol completely.
  •  
  • •Exercising regularly. Do light-to-moderate exercise for 30 minutes a day. Walking is one example of an activity that can provide light-to-moderate exercise

There are also a number of things that a person with chronic hepatitis D can do to help stay healthy both during and after treatment for hepatitis D. Some of these things include:

  • •Avoiding unsafe sex
  • •Avoiding sharing needles
  • •Asking your doctor about tests to check for liver damage
  • •Asking your doctor about the hepatitis A vaccine
  • •Learning how to protect yourself from other hepatitis viruses

                 Hepatitis E  :

Hepatitis is a general term meaning inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis is a disease that can be caused by a variety of different viruses such as hepatitis A, B, C, D and E. Since the development of jaundice is a characteristic feature of liver disease, a correct diagnosis can only be made by testing patients' sera for the presence of specific viral antigens and/or anti-viral antibodies.

Hepatitis E (HEV) was not recognized as a distinct human disease until 1980. Hepatitis E is caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus, a non-enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus.
Although man is considered the natural host for HEV, antibodies to HEV or closely related viruses have been detected in primates and several other animal species.

                 How is Hepatitis E transmitted?

HEV is transmitted via the faecal-oral route. Hepatitis E is a waterborne disease, and contaminated water or food supplies have been implicated in major outbreaks. Consumption of faecally contaminated drinking water has given rise to epidemics, and the ingestion of raw or uncooked shellfish has been the source of sporadic cases in endemic areas. There is a possibility of zoonotic spread of the virus, since several non-human primates, pigs, cows, sheep, goats and rodents are susceptible to infection. The risk factors for HEV infection are related poor sanitation in large areas of the world, and HEV shedding in faeces.

Person-to-person transmission is uncommon. There is no evidence for sexual transmission or for transmission by transfusion.

Hepatitis E Symptoms

If symptoms of hepatitis E do occur, they usually appear abruptly.These symptoms (especially early ones) may be similar to the stomach flu and can include:
 

  • •Fatigue
  • •Excessive tiredness
  • •A lack of appetite
  • •Nausea
  • •Diarrhea
  • •A low-grade fever
  • •Muscle pain
  • •Joint pain
  • •A sore throat
  • •Dark urine
  • •Pale-colored stool
  • •Stomach pain (or abdominal pain) on the right side.

Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or the whites of the eyes) usually occurs several days (up to two weeks) after these early hepatitis E symptoms. When jaundice appears, the early symptoms tend to improve -- although weight loss may continue.
Symptoms of hepatitis E are indistinguishable from hepatitis A symptoms..

                     Hepatitis G :

A virus first identified in 1995 that is genetically related to the hepatitis C virus but which does not cause hepatitis and, in fact, is not known to be responsible for any disease.

Infection with the virus seems to be beneficial to HIV-infected patients. They enjoy longer survival if they are coinfected with this virus and HIV than if they have HIV alone.

The hepatitis G virus is also called the GB virus C (GBV-C). This designation is now preferred because the virus is not a cause of hepatitis.

                      Way of transmission :

Just like in the cases of other types of hepatitis, the infection with hepatitis G virus occurs when infected blood or blood products enters the body of a not infected person.

It is also transmitted trough unprotected (without a latex barrier) sex and from an infected mother to her baby during birth.

                   Symptoms of Hepatitis G  :

 

 

Because of the fact that there hadn't been established a clear association between hepatitis G virus and liver disease, the information about the symptoms caused by the infection with this virus are very limited.

In most cases it doesn't cause symptoms similar to those caused by the other types of hepatitis, although some of the infected persons might present some flu-like symptoms.

 

Instructions:

•1

Decide whether or not you are at risk of having this disease based upon your medical history and social lifestyle. People who are at risk of having hepatitis G include those who suffer from bleeding conditions (such as hemophilia ) and need multiple blood transfusions, intravenous drug users, those who have multiple sex partners, people with numerous tattoos and body piercings, and individuals with kidney disease who use hemodialysis. In addition, individuals who currently have hepatitis B or C, or both, are at risk of getting hepatitis G.

•2

Confirm whether or not you have any of the signs and symptoms for hepatitis G. Many people do not have any signs at all, but the common signs to look for include nausea, jaundice, vomiting, dark-colored urine, loss of appetite, fatigue and general flu-like symptoms. You need to contact your doctor if you have any of these symptoms.

•3

Call your doctor and schedule an appointment as soon as possible. Only your doctor can verify if you have hepatitis G.

•4

Visit your doctor for an evaluation and testing. Your doctor will begin by asking you a series of questions about your symptoms, medical history, current medications and lifestyle. Your doctor will also take a sample of your blood and send it to the lab for tesing procedures. If HGV-RNA is present in your blood, then you have hepatitis G.

•5

Receive your test results from your doctor. Your doctor will notify you when your test results are back from the lab and inform you of your health status. It can take up to a week before you receive your results.

•6

Get plenty of rest. There are no specific treatment options for hepatitis G, besides get plenty of rest, avoid alcohol and eat a well-balanced diet.

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